BAD (Homo sapiens)
- Synonyms: BAD, BCL2L8, BBC2
- Species: Metazoa;Bilateria;Deuterostoma;Chordata;Vertebrata;Mammalia;Primates;Hominidae; Homo sapiens
- Short gene description: Bcl2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)(Bcl-2-binding component 6)(Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)(Bcl-2-like 8 protein) [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot;Acc:Q92934]
- Family: Bcl-2 family : BH3-only
- Process: apoptosis,
- Pathways: intrinsic pathway, pre-mitochondrial signaling events,
- Criteria: manually curated
- Curator comment: The murine counterpart for Bad participates in regulation of glucose metabolism
- Mouse ortholog(s): Bad
- WIKI: BAD-H_sapiens
- Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death.
- Yang E, Zha J, Jockel J, Boise LH, Thompson CB, Korsmeyer SJ
- To extend the mammalian cell death pathway, we screened for further Bcl-2 interacting proteins. Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein, Bad, whose homology to Bcl-2 is limited to the BH1 and BH2 domains. Bad selectively dimerized with Bcl-xL as well as Bcl-2, but not with Bax, Bcl-xs, Mcl-1, A1, or itself. Bad binds more strongly to Bcl-xL than Bcl-2 in mammalian cells, and it reversed the death repressor activity of Bcl-xL, but not that of Bcl-2. When Bad dimerized with Bcl-xL, Bax was displaced and apoptosis was restored. When approximately half of Bax was heterodimerized, death was inhibited. The susceptibility of a cell to a death signal is determined by these competing dimerizations in which levels of Bad influence the effectiveness of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-xL in repressing death. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):285-91.
- References from Mouse ortholog(s):
- Bad is a BH3 domain-containing protein that forms an inactivating dimer with Bcl-XL.
- Kelekar A, Chang BS, Harlan JE, Fesik SW, Thompson CB
- The Bcl-2 related protein Bad is a promoter of apoptosis and has been shown to dimerize with the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Overexpression of Bad in murine FL5.12 cells demonstrated that the protein not only could abrogate the protective capacity of coexpressed Bcl-XL but could accelerate the apoptotic response to a death signal when it was expressed in the absence of exogenous Bcl-XL. Using deletion analysis, we have identified the minimal domain in the murine Bad protein that can dimerize with Bcl-xL. A 26-amino-acid peptide within this domain, which showed significant homology to the alpha-helical BH3 domains of related apoptotic proteins like Bak and Bax, was found to be necessary and sufficient to bind Bcl-xL. To determine the role of dimerization in regulating the death-promoting activity of Bad and the death-inhibiting activity of Bcl-xL, mutations within the hydrophobic BH3-binding pocket in Bcl-xL that eliminated the ability of Bcl-xL to form a heterodimer with Bad were tested for the ability to promote cell survival in the presence of Bad. Several of these mutants retained the ability to impart protection against cell death regardless of the level of coexpressed Bad protein. These results suggest that BH3-containing proteins like Bad promote cell death by binding to antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and thus inhibiting their survival promoting functions. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Dec;17(12):7040-6.
Structure & Sequence [+]
Pfam domains: (Pfam is a large collection of protein families.)
Protein sequence [+]
BAD | Homo sapiens | 9606 | length:168
View protein alignment and tree with Jalview:
Explore tree at phylomeDB:   Click here.
Homologs list [+]
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Gene Ontology [+]
|GO id||Name||Ontology type||Evidence|
|GO:0008633||activation of pro-apoptotic gene products||biological_proccess||EXP|
|GO:0006917||induction of apoptosis||biological_proccess||NAS|
|GO:0042981||regulation of apoptosis||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0006917||induction of apoptosis||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0019221||cytokine-mediated signaling pathway||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0008624||induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0045582||positive regulation of T cell differentiation||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0045579||positive regulation of B cell differentiation||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0043281||regulation of caspase activity||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0006007||glucose catabolic process||biological_proccess||IEA|
|GO:0005741||mitochondrial outer membrane||cell_component||EXP|
Check GO Evidence Codes here
KEGG Pathways [+]
KEGG report for BAD: 572
KEGG pathways for BAD:
Curated Isoforms [+]
Information from other databases [+]
- OMIM gene information: 603167
- OMIM disease information:
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